What epidemic trends of AIDS in the women and children

By: Hayden

In the 1980s, AIDS hardly involved in women and children, but now there are tens of thousands of women and children infected with HIV. They have become the focus of world attention. In 1980, infected women were accounted for 20%, and 40% in 1995, now have more than 40%. To date, AIDS has engulfed the lives of 300 million children, today there are 100 million children infected with HIV, new infections are approximately 1/10 children, 9/10 was born in Africa. The peak age of girls infected is younger than boys. Among new HIV infection people, about 60 percent are young people aged 15-24, the male to female ratio is 1:2. Due to the drug that prevents infected mothers feeding and infant infection is expensive, leading to mother-baby transmission of increasing to15-35%; because of the speed of children infected with HIV to AIDS quickly, so most of these kids cannot wait growing up to adult. Until the end of 2012, the spread of AIDS can't be controlled. In popular areas, AIDS will increase infant mortality 75%, which make mortality of children under five years of age adding more than a time.
What are epidemic features of AIDS in women and children crowd
(1) In epidemiology aspect, the most common risk factors for HIV-infected women are heterosexual transmission, the next is intravenous drug users.
(2) basing on biological factors. Women are more easier to infect with HIV than men. The probability of male transmission of HIV to female is 2-4 times more than that of female transmission to the male.
(3) Some women infected with venereal disease are often no obvious symptoms, are less likely to seek medical attention as a result of the increased risk of HIV infection on the basis of their venereal.
(4) due to anemia or childbirth complications, among people receiving blood transfusions and other blood products, women account for a big proportion.
(5) mother-to-child transmission is the children the main route of transmission of HIV infection, in infected children around the world, more than 90% of children are infected through mother-to-child transmission. In addition, there are many children are infected from contaminated blood products, heterosexual contact, intravenous drug use, and other means, the likelihood of adolescent girls infected with HIV is much higher than boys, girls physiological susceptibility as well as the fragility of the social and the body between sexual relations, so they are in high HIV infection risk.
What factors can affect the mother-to-child transmission?
(1) Maternal HIV infection status: women with high viral load are much easier to pass HIV to children than women with low viral load.
(2) Obstetric factors: the longer the birth process, the greater the risk of infection; if are the twins, the first child, the risk of infection is greater than the second child; infection rate of vaginal production is greater than cesarean delivery.
(3) Nutritional factors: the lack of nutrition can affect the integrity of the mucous membranes and the promotion of cervical and vaginal HIV emissions, increasing vertical transmission.
(4) STD co-infection: co-infection mothers are higher levels of transmission than single infected mothers.
(5) Breastfeeding: after delivery, mother has the highest risk of transmission through breast milk.
(6) Preterm children and low-birth-weight children: the babies of infected mothers produced are low-weight. Babies are born before 34 weeks are easier to be infected than that born after 34 weeks.
December 1 is World AIDS Day, let us pay more attention to AIDS patients, concern and care for them.

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