WINS: approach to deal IP resolution

By: surender1


Windows Internet Name Server (WINS) is an enhanced NetBIOS name server (NBNS) which was designed by Microsoft to resolve NetBIOS

computer names to IP addresses and at the same time eliminate the usage of broadcasts for name resolution.
In this manner, WINS eliminates traffic generated by broadcasting on the network.

WINS provides a WINS database that it utilizes to store and maintain NetBIOS computer names to IP addresses mappings. WINS registers

NetBIOS computer names, and stores these client name registrations in the WINS database. The registrations are used when clients query

for host name resolution and service information. The database is then utilized to resolve a NetBIOS name to an IP address.

The main advantages of using WINS to resolve the NetBIOS names of computers into IP addresses are:
1. NetBIOS client requests are transmitted to the WINS server. If the WINS server resolves the NetBIOS name to an IP address, no

broadcast traffic is sent over the network. This basically means that traffic generated by broadcasting is reduced. Broadcasts are only used if

the WINS server is unable to resolve the NetBIOS name.
2. The WINS database is updated dynamically. This ensures that the database remains current.
3. When a WINS client’s IP address changes, the WINS client automatically updates the WINS server database with the change.
4. A WINS enabled client can communicate with a WINS server that is located anywhere on the internetwork.

Cisco AS5200 with two T1 PRI circuits
Certain dialing clients require Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS), and/or Domain Naming System (DNS) server information in order

to properly connect to the network.
This AS5200 Access Server is configured with two Primary Rate Interfaces (PRIs) to allow incoming async and ISDN users. Dynamic dialer

maps are created for ISDN users. Without TACACS+ or RADIUS configured, a username and password must be configured for each user

requiring dial in access. All IP addresses are handed to the client by the DHCP server. The access server passes the IP address of the DNS

and WINS servers to the client during PPP IP Control Protocol (IPCP) negotiation.

DNS Servers compared
Each of these DNS servers is an independent implementation of the DNS protocols, capable of resolving DNS names for other computers,

publishing the DNS names of computers, or both.
• BIND is the de facto standard DNS server and is the most widely deployed DNS server. It is an open-source product and is distributed with

most Unix and Linux.
• Microsoft DNS is provided with Windows Server, a key component of Microsoft's Active Directory and is one of the most widely deployed

DNS implementations.
• Djbdns released in 2007, is the second most popular open-source DNS server and is a collection of DNS applications, including tinydns.

With a modular, light-weight design, its components are considered faster than their BIND counterpart, but feature several uncommon

installation and configuration methods.
• Dnsmasq is a lightweight, easy to configure, DNS forwarder and local resolver, usually integrated in home networking routers.
• Simple DNS Plus is a commercial Windows DNS server product with emphasis on a simple-to-use GUI.
• NSD is a test-bed server for DNSSEC which hosts several top-level domains, and operates three of the root name-servers.
• PowerDNS is an open-source DNS server with a variety of data storage back-ends and load balancing features.
• MaraDNS is an open-source DNS server which claims a good security history and ease of use.
• ANS is a commercial authoritative server to meet the needs of top level domain servers.
• CNS is a commercial high-performance recursive caching server from Nominum, intended as a secure alternative to BIND for

enterprises.
• Posadis is an open-source DNS server, written in C++, featuring Dynamic DNS update support.
• Secure64 is a commercial security-hardened DNS appliance, deployed on a proprietary 64-bit operating system running on Intel Itanium

hardware.
• Unbound is a validating, recursive and caching DNS server designed for high-performance licensed under the BSD license by NLnet

Labs, Verisign Inc., Nominet, and Kirei.

Network address mappings are dynamically updated when a client needs to contact another computer on the network it can get its up-to-date

IP address which may be issued by a DHCP server, aside from this the WINS functionality provides a way of keeping the client names

unique on the network.

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