Infertility is described as the inability to take active part in the process of conception. Childbirth in cases of infertility becomes an issue. Infertility is caused both in men and women. Infertility can be divided into two kinds, namely primary infertility and secondary infertility. In primary infertility a couple is unable to conceive successfully even after I year of unprotected intercourse. In cases of secondary the couple is unable to conceive for the second time. The first time might have led to successful birth of a child or even miscarriage or abortion. In order to detect a case of infertility a couple has to first try to conceive for at least a year before raising an alarm. It has been estimated that nearly 10–30% of all couples might be unsuccessful in conceiving during the first year. Infertility can be caused due to various factors like age in women, impotency in women, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual practice and also a variety of emotional disorders. Infertility can lead to other psychological disorders like extreme depression. If detected early, infertility can be tackled with.
Infertility in women is of many kinds. The most common cause of infertility is age. The fertility of a woman is in the peak when she is in her 20’s. For women over 35, chances of getting pregnant are less than 10% in a month. The second most common is ovulation problem. This also appears generally with age and in a few cases it might happen due to other factors. Problems in ovulation mean that the egg or ova is formed properly or the woman is facing problems with regard to her menstrual cycle. Other problems range from being affected because of a sexually transmitted disease, poor nutrition which is the direct result of eating disorders, ovarian cysts, pelvic infections, tumors, hormone imbalances, dysfunction of the transport system from the cervix to the fallopian tubes or even chronic diseases like diabetes.
Infertility in men arises from factors like low sperm count, poor sperm motility or Asthenospermia, abnormal sperm morphology, ejaculation related problems like retrograde ejaculation with arises mostly after surgeries, structural difficulties like blockage in the tubes that help in transporting the sperms, hypospadias which is birth defect, or even crytorchidism which is mostly seen in infants where the testicles fails to get lowered in the scrotum. Hormonal deficiencies and imbalances can also lead to male infertility.
Infertility is caused by a combination of either the above stated factors or even by a single factor. It can be detected by running tests like measuring the body temperature of a woman, monitoring cervical mucus changes in a woman, biopsying in both the male and female, semen analysis and post ejaculatory urine analysis. Infertility can be treated by medicines, surgical aids, counseling or by resorting to methods like In vitro Fertilization.
Infertility is successfully detected in more than 85% of all couples and can be successfully treated in 15–20% of the couples. It can also be caused by unknown factors.
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