Responsibility dispersion effect or Decentralized responsibility effect is also known as onlookers effect. it is the point for a thing that if the individual is required to complete the task and his responsibility alone will be very strong and he can make a positive response. But for a group,it is common to complete the task , everyone responsibility in the group for individual will be weak, everyone tend to retreat facing difficulties or the responsibility .
In 1964 March 13，at 2:30 am, in front of an apartment in New York in the United States, a young woman named Juno was assassinated on the way home from the work in wine ba.When she desperately cried: "someone to kill! Help! Help!" when shouts were heard , residents nearby turned on the lamps, opened the window, then the murdererwent away.after everything was restored ,the murderer returned to commit crime to the young woman . When she was shouting again, nearby homes opened the electric lights again, the murderer fled second . When she thought nothing dangerous and returned to her home upstairs, the murderer again came before her and killed her on the stairs. In this process, although she cried for help, her 38 neighbors at least bit into the window to watch, but no one came to save her, even no one to call the police. This matter made social sensation in New York, also had caused attention and thinking of the social psychology workers.The thing that numerous bystander faced the phenomenon without help is known as responsibility dispersion effect.
In order to get the reason of responsibility dispersion effect, psychologists have done a lot of experiments and investigations, the results show: the phenomenon can't just be attributed to all of the ruthless, or lower morals performance. Because in different occasions, people's aid behavior is really different. When one meets emergency situation, if only he was there who can provide help, he will soberly realize his responsibility to help the victims. If not, he can produce guilt, which needs to pay a high psychological price. And if there are many people around , the responsibility to help the victim would be divided by everyone ,causing responsibility dispersion, everyone share of responsibility seldom that onlookers may even even that one of his own responsibility are aware of them, resulting in a kind of psychology "I don't go to deliver, to save by others " , resulting in the situation "collective apathy" . How to break this situation, this is an important task for psychologists to do .
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