In western countries, the concept of compulsory education is in vogue. All the parents are required to teach their children at least informally. This policy of Government helps in the development of a country in all the fields of life. As the formal education from the age of 5 to 16, is compulsory, all the children are required to attend schools. First, Martin Luther advocated compulsory schooling, during the Reformation period. Gradually, this national compulsory system of education prompted establishment in Scotland, Austria, UK and several other countries of the West. Prussia can claim to be the first modern compulsory system that was widely recognized ad was later expanded in the 19th century, as far as in Japan.
It later spread and reached the American State of Massachusetts in 1852, which passed a law requiring every town to create and operate a school. Fines were imposed on parents who didn’t send their children to school and the Government took the power to take children away from their parents and apprentice them to others if government officials decided that “the parents were unfit to have the children educated properly.” Compulsory education had not been part of early American society which then, mostly relied on expensive private schools. The spread of compulsory education in Massachusetts tradition, throughout America, has been credited to General Richard Henry Pratt. England and Wales were the last areas in Europe to adopt a compulsory education system. That paved a way to establish school boards to set up schools in every places and attendance was made compulsory!
In the under-developed or developing countries, however, education has not been declared compulsory. Those countries have poor infrastructure, low per capita income, malnutrition among children, basic- health problems, high mortality rate, and numerous other problems due to lack of basic education among native children and shortage of educational facilities due to negligence of government.
The present age of computer and Informational Technology demands higher education facilities in these countries, because computer literacy is the norm of the day. For this purpose, various private schools are equipped with computer desktops in classrooms. Moreover, older students prefer using laptops, as they are portable. Refurbished laptops and used computers are in great demand in schools, libraries and vocational educational training institutes. Some kind of education is compulsory to all people in most countries, varying the years of education and grades they require for their students. Due to population explosion, and importance of education, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years, more people will receive formal education as compared to earlier need in human history so far!
Therefore, the governments all over the world are trying to implement Universal Primary Education Policy and Beyond! With this policy, the nations will uphold its commitment with the UN Millennium Declaration. Its goal is to ensure that by 2015, children, everywhere, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. These goals will form the basis for national development.
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