Proteins are the basic building materials of the body. They are produced in human beings in response to the coding on a strand of DNA. Each cell of our body contains a condensed mass of chromosomes in the nucleus, which in turn contains a huge pool of DNA. This DNA pool contains the reflection of how we are supposed to look and behave. These codes are present on two strands if proteins joined together by peptide bonds. The proteins that are present in our body are actually a result of the transcription process performed by special transcribing and transfer proteins called RNAs or Ribonucleic Acid.
Now naturally, what happens is that these RNAs transcribe proteins in the nucleus and another family of these RNAs bring these proteins out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cells from where, these are transferred to the blood actively or passively. These proteins are a replica of the nucleic opposites of the codes that are present on the DNA. Hence, it becomes clear, that any change in the coding on the DNA strand would introduce changes in the proteins that are transcribed. Now these proteins determine our physical characteristics. Hence, any change in the proteins, due to a deletion or addition mutation in a DNA, would mean a physical or mental distortion in our body.
This very principle is used in laboratories to determine what changes in which codes of DNA can bring about what kinds of changes in the proteins. For this purpose, recombinant DNA strands are artificially made by applying heat and chemical reactions. These DNA strands are then introduced in the cellular nuclei of bacterial subjects like e-coli.the condition is that the bacterial cells should have the property of quick multiplication. The DNA undergoes transcription in the nucleus of the bacterial cells, and as the cells multiple, the proteins so produced, also multiple. These cells are then subjected to chemical blasting so that they spit out the proteins that have been transcribed in them.
The proteins sample, so collected is called recombinant protein because it is formed from recombinant DNAs. These recombinant proteins are used in laboratories and research houses around the world for study purposes. Widely used to study causes, effects and treatments of physical and mental mutations, these recombinant proteins have become a core part of biochemical studies. After all, proteins are the only molecules which contain a trace of the evolutionary line of the species!
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